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# Lecture Notes - Chapter 6

(These Lecture Notes are for courses using the book the Complete Electronics Self-Teaching Guide with Projects. Instructors of courses using that text are permitted to use these Lecture Notes as-is or adapt them for their use).

## Filters

• Capacitors in AC Circuits
•  Reactance of capacitor is equivalent to resistance in resistor.
•  Discuss how the reactance of capacitors changes with frequency.
•  Higher frequency results in low reactance.
•  DC voltage is blocked by capacitors.
• Capacitors and Resistors in Series
•  Impedance of a capacitor and resistor in series is similar to the total resistance of two resistors in series.
•  RC series circuit with the output voltage measured across the resistor.
• Discuss the equation for Vout  and it’s similarities to the equation for Vout for a voltage divider consisting of two resistors in series.
•  Discuss the variation in Vout with frequency (figure 6-7).
• Introduce the term; high pass filter.
• Discuss Project 6-1, The High Pass Filter.
• RC series circuit with the output voltage measured across the capacitor.
• Discuss how the equation for Vout is changed.
• Discuss the variation in Vout with frequency (figure 6-18).
• Introduce the term; low pass filter.
• Discuss Project 6-2, The Low Pass Filter.
• Phase Shift of an RC Circuit.
• Discuss how the phase shift depends upon whether Vout is taken across the resistor or capacitor (figure 6-27).
• Introduce the term; phasor diagram.
• Discuss the equation used to calculate the phase angle for an RC circuit.
• Inductors in AC Circuits
•  Reactance of inductor is equivalent to resistance in resistor.
•  Discuss the reactance of capacitors changes with frequency.
•  Higher frequency results in high reactance.
•  DC voltage is not blocked by inductors.
• Inductors and Resistors in Series
•  Impedance of a inductor and resistor in series is similar to the total resistance of two resistors in series.
•  RL series circuit with the output voltage measured across the resistor.
• Discuss the equation for Vout.
• Discuss the variation in Vout with frequency (figure 6-48).
• Mention that this circuit forms a low pass filter, while a RC circuit with the output voltage measured across the resistor forms a high pass filter.
•  RL series circuit with the output voltage measured across the inductor.
• Discuss the equation for Vout.
• Discuss the variation in Vout with frequency (figure 6-50).
• Mention that this circuit forms a high pass filter, while a RC circuit with the output voltage measured across the capacitor forms a low pass filter.
• Phase Shift of an RL Circuit.
• Discuss how the phase shift depends upon whether Vout is taken across the resistor or capacitor (figure 6-51).
• Discuss the equation used to calculate the phase angle for an RL circuit.

This page includes material extracted, by permission of the publisher, Wiley Publishing, from Complete Electronics Self-Teaching Guide with Projects, ISBN: 9781118217320.

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