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Lecture Notes - Chapter 1

(These Lecture Notes are for courses using the book the Complete Electronics Self-Teaching Guide with Projects. Instructors of courses using that text are permitted to use these Lecture Notes as-is or adapt them for their use).

Fundamentals of DC Circuits

• Current Flow
•   Introduce the term electric current.
• An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
• Discuss the difference between conventional current flow and electron flow.
• Discuss common ways to generate electric current.
• Ohms Law
• Discuss the equation for Ohm's law in the form to calculate voltage.
• Larger current results in larger voltage for any given resistance.
• The unit of measurement for voltage is volts.
• Discuss the equation for Ohm's law in the form to calculate current.
• Larger resistance results in smaller current for any given voltage.
• The unit of measurement for current is amperes.
• Discuss the equation for Ohm's law in the form to calculate resistance.
• Used to determine the necessary resistance in a circuit to result in a targeted current value for a given voltage.
• The unit of measurement for resistance is ohms ().
• Discuss the resistor color code.
• Resistors in Series
• Discuss the equation for RT for series resistors.
• Resistors in Parallel
• Discuss the equation for RT for parallel resistors.
• Introduce the equation for RT for two parallel resistors.
• RT is always smaller than the smallest of the resistors in parallel.
• Power
• Discuss the equation to calculate power when voltage and current are known.
• Discuss the equation to calculate power when current and resistance are known.
• Discuss the equation to calculate power when voltage and resistance are known.
• The unit of measurement for power is watts.
• Discuss the use of these equations to determine the power ratings of resistors and other components used in circuits.
• Small Currents
• Discuss the range of currents seen in electronic circuits.
• Introduce the term milliampere (mA).
• Introduce the term microampere (A).
• Discuss the range of resistance seen in electronic circuits.
• Introduce the term kilohm (k).
• Introduce the term megohm (M).
• The Graph of Resistance
• Introduce the term V-I curve.
• The V-I curve for a resistor is a straight line (figure 1-6).
• The value of the resistor is the slope of the line.
• The Voltage Divider
• Review the voltage divider circuit (figure 1-7).
• Introduce the term; voltage drop.
• Discuss the equation for Vo.
• Introduce Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL)
• The sum of the voltage drops in a circuit equals the voltage supplied to a circuit.
• Introduce the use of breadboards to make temporary circuits.
• Discuss the + V and ground busses.
• Discuss the use of interconnected contact holes.
• Discuss the use of jumper wires.
• The Current Divider
• Review the current divider circuit.(figure 1-9).
• Discuss the equation that determines the current flowing through each resistor in this circuit.
• If one resistor is larger than the other the current flowing through the higher value resistor will be the smaller of the two.
• Introduce Kirchhoff's current law (KCL).
• The total current entering a junction in a circuit equals the sum of the currents leaving that junction.
• The Multimeter
• Discuss how the multimeter is used to measure voltage.
• Discuss how the multimeter is used to measure current.
• Discuss how the multimeter is used to measure resistance.
• Switches
• Review the single pole single throw (SPST) switch (figure 1-13 ).
• Review the single pole double throw (SPDT) switch (figure 1-14).
• Capacitors in a DC Circuit
• Discuss the process of charging a capacitor
• Introduce the term; time constant (τ).
• Discuss the equation for τ.
• Review the capacitor charging graph (figure 1-16).
• Discuss the process of discharging a capacitor (figure 1-17)
• Discuss the equation for CT for capacitors in series.
• Discuss the equation for CT for capacitors in parallel.

This page includes material extracted, by permission of the publisher, Wiley Publishing, from Complete Electronics Self-Teaching Guide with Projects, ISBN: 9781118217320.